A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.
In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
Side Effets :
Psychological Effects of Drug Addiction :
The psychological effects of drug addiction come from the reason the user is addicted to drugs, as well as the changes that take place in the brain once a person becomes a drug addict. Initially, many people start using drugs to cope with stress or pain. An effect of drug addiction is creation of a cycle where anytime the user encounters stress or pain, they feel the need to use the drug. This is one of the psychological effects of drug addiction involved in "craving" of the drug.
Craving is an effect of drug addiction whereby the addict is obsessed with obtaining and using the drug, to the exclusion of all else. One of the psychological effects of addiction involved in craving is the belief the addict cannot function or handle life without use of the drug.
Other psychological effects of drug addiction include:
Wild mood swings, depression, anxiety, paranoia, violence
Decrease in pleasure in everyday life
Complication of mental illness
Psychological tolerance to the drug's effects creating a desire to do ever-increasing amounts of the drug
Desire to engage in risky behavior
Physical Effects of Drug Addiction
Physical effects of drug addiction vary by drug but are typically seen in all systems of the body. Some of the primary physical effects of drug addiction take place in the brain.
Drug addiction changes the way the brain functions and impacts how the body perceives pleasure. These effects of drug addiction are because the drug repeatedly floods the brain with the chemicals dopamine and serotonin during drug use. The brain adapts and comes to expect, and depend on, these drug-induces highs.
Physical effects of drug addiction are also seen in babies of drug abusers as well as in mortality statistics.
One effect of drug addiction is:
Children born to drug-using mothers can be cognitively affected throughout life. Regarding mortality, one-in-four deaths are due to the effects of drug addiction.
Other physical effects of drug addiction include:
Contraction of HIV, hepatitis and other illnesses
Heart rate irregularities, heart attack
Respiratory problems such as lung cancer, emphysema and breathing problems
Abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea
Kidney and liver damage
Seizures, stroke, brain damage
Changes in appetite, body temperature and sleeping patterns
Phases of Treatment :
The following factors have been shown to influence the outcome of different stages of treatment :
Counselling and psychotherapies
Medications in detoxification and maintenance
Counsellor and therapist effects
Treatment completion and retention